Titan was a valuable target, as it was the only moon known to have an atmosphere, and a flyby would gather information that would not otherwise be obtainable, including the density, composition, and temperature of the atmosphere. Two trajectories were selected. One was designated JST: its mission would take it to Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan, with the probe's trajectory designed to optimize the Titan flyby. The second was designated JSX: it would be launched on a trajectory that would preserve the option of a Grand Tour, while serving as backup for the first probe.
The two spacecraft that launched retained the same mission concept. The Grand Tour (Part 1) - Grand Tour (2) - Heavy On The Beach (CD 1 's course was optimized for the Titan flyby and Voyager 2 for the Grand Tour. The Grand Tour (Part 1) - Grand Tour (2) - Heavy On The Beach (CD 2 would reach Saturn nine months after Voyager 1giving plenty of time to decide if it should proceed with the Grand Tour.
Additionally, by launching Voyager 2 first, Voyager 1 's launch could be re-targeted to perform the Grand Tour if Voyager 2 were lost in a launch failure. Though atmospheric haze obscured any images of Titan's surface, Voyager 1 's flyby obtained valuable information about the moon, including data that offered compelling evidence for the existence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes on Titan's surface.
With Voyager 1 's mission complete, Voyager 2 was cleared for an extended mission to Uranus and Neptune, fulfilling the goal of a Grand Tour as proposed in Pluto image from New Horizons mission, July Note: Pluto was still classified as a planet when the Grand Tour was proposed and at the time New Horizons was launched.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. NASA's cancelled space program intended to explore the outer solar system. For other uses, see Grand Tour disambiguation. Jupiter Voyager 1March Saturn Voyager 2August Uranus Voyager 2January Neptune Voyager 2August Astronautica Acta.
Mack, Pamela E. Washington, D. Archived from the original on After a side trip to Pisathe tourist would move on to Padua Bolognaand Venice. The British idea of Venice as the "locus of decadent Italianate allure" made it an epitome and cultural set piece of the Grand Tour. From Venice the traveller went to Rome to study the ancient ruins and the masterpieces of painting, sculpture, and architecture of Rome's Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods.
Some travellers also visited Naples to study music, and after the midth century to appreciate the recently discovered archaeological sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii and perhaps for the adventurous an ascent of Mount Vesuvius. Later in the period, the more adventurous, especially if provided with a yachtmight attempt Sicily the site of Greek ruinsMalta  or even Greece itself.
But Naples — or later Paestum further south — was the usual terminus. Returning northward, the tourist might recross the Alps to the German-speaking parts of Europe, visiting InnsbruckViennaDresdenBerlin and Potsdamwith perhaps a period of study at the universities in Munich or Heidelberg.
From there, travellers could visit Holland and Flanders with more gallery-going and art appreciation before returning across the Channel to England.
Published accounts of the Grand Tour provided illuminating detail and an often polished first-hand perspective of the experience. Examining some accounts offered by authors in their own lifetimes, Jeremy Black  detects the element of literary artifice in these and cautions that they should be approached as travel literature rather than unvarnished accounts.
Although Italy was written as the "sink of iniquity", many travelers were not kept from recording the activities they participated in or the people they met, especially the women they encountered.
To the Grand Tourists, Italy was an unconventional country, for "The shameless women of Venice made it unusual, in its own way. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Italian women, with their unfamiliar methods and routines, were opposites to the western dress expected of European women in the eighteenth and nineteenth century; their "foreign" ways led to the documentation of encounters with them, providing published accounts of the Grand Tour.
James Boswell courted noble ladies and recorded his progress with his relationships, mentioning that Madame Micheli "Talked of religion, philosophy… Kissed hand often.
Boswell notes "Yesterday morning with her. Pulled up petticoat and showed whole knees… Touched with her goodness. All other liberties exquisite. Lord Byron 's letters to his mother with the accounts of his travels have also been published, Album). Inventor Sir Francis Ronalds ' journals and sketches of his —20 tour to Europe and the Near East have been published online.
Stuart Tartleton, in a conversation with his twin brother, Brent, suspects that their mother is not likely to provide them with a Grand Tour, since they have been expelled from college again.
Brent is not concerned, remarking, " What is there to see in Europe? I'll bet those foreigners can't show us a thing we haven't got right here in Georgia. Set mainly in Venice, it portrayed the Grand Tour as a rite of passage. Ostensibly an art history series, the journey takes her from Madrid to Saint Petersburg with stop-offs to see the great masterpieces.
The Amazon motoring programme The Grand Tour is named after the traditional Grand Tour, and refers to the show being set in a different location worldwide each week. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Grand Tour disambiguation. Journey around Europe for cultural education. Frugal Traveler. New York Album).
Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved July 22, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Retrieved Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour2nd ed. Babel, Rainer,Paravicini, Werner. Ostfildern: Thorbecke. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgeversmaatschappij.
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Annals of Tourism Research. Jafari and Pergamon Press Ltd. Retrieved 12 December Venice and the Grand Tour. Yale University Press : Macmillan : The guardian. Retrieved 4 August Malta : Midsea Books. Archived from the original on Coxe's travels range far from the Grand Tour pattern. Sir Francis Ronalds and his Family.
Retrieved 9 Apr London: Imperial College Press. Elizabeth Bohls and Ian Duncan, ed. Oxford University Press. Edward Chaney ed.
Tauris, London, Stephens, Richard. Clare Hornsby ed. Marshall, K. Wolfe and S. Russell, British School at Rome,pp. Henry S. Guide book Outdoor literature Travel magazines. Category Commons WikiProject.
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