Examples include sprains and broken bones. Superficial somatic pain is initiated by activation of nociceptors in the skin or other superficial tissue, and is sharp, well-defined and clearly located. Examples of injuries that produce superficial somatic pain include minor wounds and minor first degree burns.
Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease affecting any part of the nervous system involved in bodily feelings the somatosensory system. Peripheral neuropathic pain is often described as "burning", "tingling", "electrical", "stabbing", or "pins and needles".
Nociplastic pain is pain characterized by a changed nociception but without evidence of real or threatened tissue damage, or without disease or damage in the somatosensory system. This applies, for example, to fibromyalgia patients. Psychogenic pain, also called psychalgia or somatoform painis pain caused, increased, or prolonged by mental, emotional, or behavioral factors.
However, specialists consider that it is no less actual or hurtful than pain from any other source. People with long-term pain frequently display psychological disturbance, with elevated scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales of hysteriadepression and hypochondriasis the " neurotic triad ". Some investigators have argued that it is this neuroticism that causes acute pain to turn chronic, but clinical evidence points the other direction, to chronic pain causing neuroticism.
When long-term pain is relieved by therapeutic intervention, scores on the neurotic triad and anxiety fall, often to normal levels. Self-esteemoften low in chronic pain patients, also shows improvement once pain has resolved.
Inadequate treatment of pain is widespread throughout surgical wards, intensive care unitsand accident and emergency departmentsin general practicein the management of all forms of chronic pain including cancer pain, and in end of life care.
The International Association for the Study of Pain advocates that the relief of pain should be recognized as a human rightthat chronic pain should be considered a disease in its own right, and that pain medicine should have the full status of a medical specialty.
Acute pain is usually managed with medications such as analgesics and anesthetics. Sugar sucrose when taken by mouth reduces pain in newborn babies undergoing some medical procedures a lancing of the heel, venipunctureand intramuscular injections.
Sugar does not remove pain from circumcisionand it is unknown if sugar reduces pain for other procedures. Individuals with more social support experience less cancer pain, take less pain medication, report less labor pain and are less likely to use epidural anesthesia during childbirth, or suffer from chest pain after coronary artery bypass surgery.
Suggestion can significantly affect pain intensity. This placebo effect is more pronounced in people who are prone to anxiety, and so anxiety reduction may account for some of the effect, but it does not account for all of it. Placebos are more effective for intense pain than mild pain; and they produce progressively weaker effects with repeated administration. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT has been shown effective for improving quality of life in those with chronic pain but the reduction in suffering is modest, and the CBT method was not shown to have any effect on outcome.
A number of meta-analyses have found clinical hypnosis to be effective in controlling pain associated with diagnostic and surgical procedures in both adults and children, as well as pain associated with cancer and childbirth. The authors concluded that "although the findings provide support for the general applicability of hypnosis in the treatment of chronic pain, considerably more research will be needed to fully determine the effects of hypnosis for different chronic-pain conditions. An analysis of the 13 highest quality studies of pain treatment with acupuncturepublished in Januaryconcluded there was little difference in the effect of real, faked and no acupuncture.
For chronic long-term lower back painspinal manipulation produces tiny, clinically insignificantshort-term improvements in pain and function, compared sham therapy and other interventions. A quarter reported having experienced recurrent or continuous pain for three months or more, and a third of these reported frequent and intense pain. The intensity of chronic pain was higher for girls, and girls' reports of chronic pain increased markedly between ages 12 and Inresponding to the need for a more useful system for describing chronic painthe International Association for the Study of Pain IASP classified pain according to specific characteristics:.
However, this system has been criticized by Clifford J. Woolf and others as inadequate for guiding research and treatment, Pain. The nature or meaning of physical pain has been diversely understood by religious or secular traditions from antiquity to modern times. Physical pain is an important political topic in relation to various issues, including pain management policy, drug controlanimal rights or animal welfaretortureand pain compliance.
In various contexts, the deliberate infliction of pain in the form of Pain punishment is used as retribution for an offence, or for the purpose of disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer, or to deter attitudes or behaviour deemed unacceptable. The slow slicingor death by a thousand cuts, was a form of execution in China reserved for crimes viewed as especially severe, such as high treason or patricide. In some cultures, extreme practices such as mortification of the flesh or painful rites of passage are highly regarded.
The most reliable method for assessing pain in most humans is by asking a question: a person may report pain that cannot be detected by any known physiological measure. However, like infants, animals cannot answer questions about whether they feel pain; thus the defining criterion for pain in humans cannot be applied to them.
Philosophers and scientists have responded to this difficulty in a variety of ways. The presence of pain in an animal cannot be known for certain, but it can be inferred through physical and behavioral reactions. In particular, there are no known nociceptors in Pain such as plants, fungi, and most insects,  except for instance in fruit flies.
In vertebrates, endogenous opioids are neuromodulators that moderate pain by interacting with opioid receptors. First attested in English inthe word peyn comes from the Old French peinein turn from Latin poena meaning "punishment, penalty"  in L. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of unpleasant feeling.
This article is about physical pain. For mental or emotional pain, see Psychological pain. For other uses, see Pain disambiguation. Main article: Chronic pain. Main article: Phantom pain. Main articles: Pain asymbolia and Congenital insensitivity to pain. For other uses, see Painless disambiguation. Play media. See also: History of pain theory. See also: Pain assessmentPain scalesand Pain ladder. Main article: Visual analogue scale.
See also: Pain and dementia and Pain in babies. Main article: Nociception. Main article: Neuropathic pain. Main article: Psychogenic pain. Main article: Pain management. Further information: Pain management in children and Pain management during childbirth.
Main articles: Pain in animals and Pain in invertebrates. Articles in Press. Cambridge, Mass. Chapter 1. In: The Handbook of Chronic Pain. Nova Biomedical Books. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. British Journal of Anaesthesia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In Williams KD ed. East Sussex: Psychology Press. Bonica's management of pain.
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The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. Nursing practice theories related to cognition, bodily pain, and man-environment interactions. More recently, McCaffery defined pain as "whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever the experiencing person says it does. Pain: clinical manual. Louis: Mosby. Emergency Medicine Journal. Archived from the original on 25 January Margaret McLean ; Harding, Mariann Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems 10th ed.
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European Journal of Cancer Care. Neurourology and Urodynamics. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Analgesics painkillers are the most common pain remedy. Acetaminophen Tylenol and other brand names interferes with pain messages. Aspirin and ibuprofen AdvilMotrin and others work in two ways: 1 by interfering with pain messages, and 2 by reducing inflammation, swelling and irritation that can make pain worse.
Narcotic pain relievers, such as morphine and codeineare the most powerful pain treatments. These usually are reserved for the most intense pain. They can cause serious side effects, can be addictive and often cause constipation. Other drugs such as anesthetics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and corticosteroids may work against certain types of pain.
Sometimes medications are injected directly into the region of pain or near a nerve to interrupt the pain signal. Non-drug treatments may be especially useful for people with chronic pain. In some cases, these treatments may stimulate natural painkillers, called endorphins, which are created within the body. In other cases, non-drug treatments work directly on nerves to interfere with pain messages. Sometimes, it isn't clear why the pain stops. Pain means some kind of problem exists.
And while different people tolerate different degrees of pain, you should never ignore pain. Consult a doctor if you cannot determine why you are experiencing pain, if pain continues or if it doesn't respond to simple treatment.
For people with acute pain, the outlook is usually good. Many drugs are effective in relieving pain. When the cause of the pain is removed, the pain subsides. People with chronic pain may have a more difficult time. The sources of pain can be hard to find and difficult to treat, and pain may continue even after its causes are addressed. Chronic pain can cause complications such as sleep disorders, loss of appetite and depression. Doctors are learning more about the causes and treatment of chronic pain, but chronic pain sufferers may need to learn to cope with pain for a long time.
Lifestyle changes Pain non-drug treatments may need to become a part of daily life. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.
Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Skip to Content. Pain Medically reviewed by Drugs. Pain is classified into two types: Acute pain: Usually has a clear source Begins suddenly Doesn't last a long time Can increase heart and breathing rates and raise blood pressure Acute pain is generally useful.
Chronic pain: Usually lasts a month or more, and could last years Can come and go many times or remain constant Can disturb sleep patterns, decrease appetite and cause depression Often has little or no effect on blood pressure, heart or breathing rates Chronic pain can outlive its usefulness; the message has been sent and received, but keeps being sent over and over.
Symptoms Pain is the symptom. Diagnosis To diagnose the cause of pain, doctors usually try to determine the intensity of the pain and what's causing the pain. Expected Duration How long pain lasts will depend on its source and severity. Prevention Trying to prevent pain before it happens can be dangerous. Treatment Your doctor probably will treat your pain while he or she tries to figure out the cause. Non-drug treatments for pain include: Acupuncture Massage Relaxation Psychotherapy Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENSwhich uses electrical impulses to stimulate the nerve endings at or near the site of pain Non-drug treatments may be especially useful for people with chronic pain.
When To Call a Professional Pain means some kind of problem exists. Prognosis For people with acute pain, the outlook is usually good. Learn more about Pain Associated drugs Pain. More Information Medication Guide 1 related article. Related Stories. Subscribe to our newsletters. FDA Safety Alerts. Daily MedNews. Weekly Drug News Roundup.
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