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My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. The two other blocks are smaller. In Arctic sectors between the shields, there have been long periods of marine sedimentationand consequently the shields are partly buried.
In some areas thick sediments were subsequently folded, thus producing mountains, many of which have since been destroyed by erosion. Two main orogenies mountain-building periods have been recognized in Arctic Arctic. In Paleozoic times about million to million years ago there developed a complex mountain system that includes both Caledonian and Hercynian elements.
There is considerable speculation as to how these mountains are linked beneath the sea. The second orogeny occurred during the Mesozoic million to These mountains survive in northeastern Siberia and Alaska.
Horizontal or lightly warped sedimentary rocks cover part of the shield in northern Canadawhere they are preserved in basins and troughs. Sedimentary rocks are even more extensive in northern Russia and in western and central Siberia, where they range in age from early Paleozoic to Quaternary the past 2.
It is evident that the polar landmasses have been transported on lithospheric plates through geologic time and that their positions relative to each other and to the North Pole have changed, with significant modification to ocean circulation and to climate. Motion of plates in Arctic Paleogene and Neogene periods about One was associated with mountain building around the North Pacific, and active volcanoes are still found in Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islandsand Alaska.
The other area of igneous activity extended across the North Atlantic and included the whole of IcelandJan Mayen Island, and east Greenland south of Scoresby Sound; it was probably connected to west Greenland north of Disko Bay and to east Baffin Island. Volcanism continues in Iceland and on Jan Mayen, and hot springs are found in Greenland.
Little is known about the climate of the northern lands in early Cenozoic times; it is possible that the tree line was at least 1, miles farther north than at present. During the Cenozoic, however, the polar lands became cooler and permanent land ice formed, first in the Alaskan mountain ranges and subsequently, by the end of the Pliocene 2.
By the onset of the Quaternary Periodglaciers were widespread in northern latitudes. Throughout Arctic Quaternary, continental-scale ice sheets expanded and decayed on at least eight occasions in response to major climatic oscillations in high latitudes. Detailed information available for the final glaciation 80, to 10, years ago indicates that in North America the main ice sheet developed on Baffin Island and swept south and west across Canada, amalgamating with smaller glaciers to form the Laurentide Ice Sheetcovering much of the continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the Rocky Mountains and between the Arctic Ocean and the Ohio and Missouri river valleys, Arctic.
A smaller ice cap formed in the Western Cordillera. The northern margin of the ice lay along the Brooks Range excluding the Yukon Basin and across the southern islands of the Canadian Archipelago.
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