With the backing Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl) the U. The 8-track format gained steadily in popularity because of its convenience and portability. Home players were introduced in that allowed consumers to share tapes between their homes and portable systems. By the late s, the 8-track segment was the largest in the consumer electronics market and the popularity of 8-track systems for cars helped generate demand for home units.
With the availability of cartridge systems for the home, consumers started thinking of eight-tracks as a viable alternative to 33 rpm album style vinyl recordsnot only as a convenience for the car. Also by the late s, prerecorded releases on the 8-track tape format began to arrive within a month of the vinyl release. The 8-track format became by far the most popular and offered the largest music library of all the tape systems.
Optional 8-track players were available in many cars and trucks through the early s. Ampex, based in Elk Grove Village, Illinoisset up a European operation Ampex Stereo Tapes in London, Englandin to promote 8-track product and musicassettes [ clarification needed ] in Britain and Europe, but it struggled and folded in Quadraphonic sound on eight-track cartridges was announced by RCA in April Ford was particularly eager to promote in-car quadraphonic players as a pricey option, being the only "Big Four" American automotive company to do so.
Daisuke Inoue invented the first karaoke machine in called the Juke An 8-track cartridge provides four pairs of stereo tracks, whereas the later quadraphonic cartridges had two sets of four tracks.
The ends of the tape were spliced with a thin strip of metal that would trigger a solenoid that would cause the playback heads to automatically jump to the next set of channels. Both types of players also provided a button for manually changing channels. Due to the design of the endless loop tape, which fed from the reel in only one direction, there was no rewind control.
Due to the mechanical stress on the tape, few machines offered a fast-forward control, Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl). The mixing process for producing quadraphonic media varied between titles.
As was the case with many early stereo recordings, some producers opted for a hard separation between Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl), such as an individual instrument or vocal being assigned to only one track of the four, while other producers chose to mix in content from the other channels to create more of a balance.
A few producers created mixes in which the four output channels would pan in sequence through the four source channels to create a rotating sensation. The rarely-heard effect was spectacular, but as there was no technology to produce this automatically, it would require two mixing engineers who, with practice, could coordinate their efforts to create the effect. Due to this challenge, few songs were created with this effect.
Inthe Mego Corporation launched the 2-XL toy robot, which was similar. Eight-track players became less common in homes and vehicles in the late s. The compact cassette arrived in and by the late s the eight-track cartridges had greatly diminished in popularity. In some Latin American countries as well as European, the format was abandoned in the mids in favor of the smaller cassette tape which was one-third the size. In the U. Radio Shack Tandy Corporation continued to sell blank eight-track cartridges for home recording use under its Realistic brand until The professional broadcast cart format survived for more than another decade for jingles, advertisements, station identifications, and limited music content at most local radio stations, before being replaced by computer-generated sound in the s.
It persisted for relatively short sound loops where starting from the beginning was more important than other criteria. The endless loop tape concept continued to be used in newer movie projectorsthough their tape spool is actively rotated and not drawn by tension on the film. That technology is now being supplanted by digital cinema. In the Cousino, Eash, Muntz, and Lear cartridges, tape was pulled from the center of the reel, passed across the opening at one end of the cartridge and wound back onto the outside of the same reel.
The spool itself was freewheeling and the tape was driven only by tension from the capstan and pinch roller. With a reel turning at a constant rate, the tape around the hub has a lower linear velocity than the tape at the outside of the reel, so the tape layers must slip past each other as they approach the center. The tape was coated with a slippery backing material, usually graphite and patented by Bernard Cousino, to ease the continuous slip between the tape layers.
While the design allowed simple, cheap, and mobile players, unlike a two-reel system, it did not permit rewinding of the tape. Some players offered fast-forward by speeding up the motor while cutting off the audio. Muntz's cartridge had used two pairs of stereo tracks in the same configuration as then-current "quarter track" reel-to-reel tapes. This format was intended to parallel his source material, which was usually a single LP long playing record with two sides. Program switching was achieved by physically moving the head up and down mechanically by a lever.
The Stereo 8 version doubled the amount of programming on the tape by providing eight total tracks, usually comprising four programs of two tracks each. Lear touted this as a great improvement, because much more music could be held inside a standard cartridge housing, but in practice this resulted in a slight loss of sound quality and an increase in background noise from the narrower tape tracks.
Unlike the Stereo-Pak, the Stereo 8 could switch between tracks automatically, with the use of a small length Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl) conductive foil at the splice joint on the tape, which would cause the player to change tracks as it passed the head assembly. The cartridges have an audible pause due to the presence of a length of metallic foil, which a sensor detects and signals the end of the tape and acts as a splice for the loop. The foil passes across a pair of electrical contacts which are in the tape path.
Contact of the foil closes an electrical circuit that engages a solenoid which mechanically shifts the tape head over to the next track. Most players produced a mechanical click when switching programs, although early Lear players switched silently. Because of the expense of producing tape heads capable of reading eight tracks, most eight-track players have heads that read just two tracks.
Switching from program to program is accomplished by moving the head itself. Since the alignment of the head to the tape is crucial to any tape system, and because eight-track systems were generally designed to be cheap, this configuration further degraded the sound Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl) the eight-track tape.
The Stereo 8 system was fairly simple, mechanically, but presented difficulties in various primary areas:. When the sliding tape pack would pull itself tight, for whatever reason, a jammed 8-track cartridge was the result. A quick solution was to hold the cartridge in one hand, facing down, while pulling out a section of, about ' in length from the outer winding side.
A quick tug on the tape would cause it to immediately wind in and the result was a loosened up tape pack that would play correctly. Failing that, another solution was to open the cartridge, cut the tape at the splice, and relieve the excess tension by manually unwinding one or two sections from the outer edge of tape loop length while keeping the reel stationary, then re-splicing the tape, with a fresh piece of foil.
Another, simpler fix was to shake the cassette in the plane of the tape reel with a rotary motion, sometimes this would cause the windings inside to rotate and loosen.
If the cartridge has shed its graphite backing, it would have to be discarded. Small businesses that specialize in transferring audio tapes to digital format can remove the tape from the surrounding plastic cartridge box and play it on a small reel-to-reel player to extract maximum sound fidelity. A decrease in the quality of the parts used in the eight-track cartridge, that is, Protesti - 8 Track EP (Vinyl) pinch rollers, lubricant quality and quantity, etc. As these problems further reduced the reliability, sound quality, and consistent tape speed, the eight-track eventually developed a reputation for being unreliable.
The Stereo 8 introduced the problem of dividing up the programming intended for a two-sided LP record into four programs. Often this resulted in songs being split into two parts the split was often made during an instrumental break or a repeated chorussong orders being reshuffled, shorter songs being repeated, and songs separated by long passages of silence. In rare instances, an eight-track was able to be arranged exactly like the record album version, without any song breaks.
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