True False I don't know 4. Dipsomania is sexual excitement aroused by whipping. True False I don't know 5. True False I don't know 6. Paraminia is a disorder in which gestures fail to express the underlying feelings. True False I don't know 7. Claustrophilia is a fear of closed spaces.
True False I don't know 8. Coprolalia is an obsessive use of obsene words. True False I don't know 9. Pseudesthesia is a false or illusory sensation, such as the illusion of irritation in an amputated limb.
True False I don't know Taphophilia is a morbid desire, usually sexual, for a dead body. Seasons - Spring Magnitude Recordings. Evocative unmixed tracks. Spring Breeze. Cosmic Rain. First up and our fav is Ormatie with a light, bright, and engaging progressive mix while In total contrast Stefan Weise goes all out deep and dark for pure underground vibes.
Proton triumph in delivering the perfect remix package, rather than just knocking out a barrage of samey cuts for the sake of it. A label on the up for sure, that should keep on rising throughout Many Questions. Without Horizons. Eternal Starfields. Evocative Nicolas Petracca. Stellar Sessions Vol 5. Vibrant Vibeland Vol 3. ST 23 Feb 15 Progressive House. Vibrant Vibeland Vol 2. God reduplicated, in the artwork, the very structure of the theolog- ical and psychopathological conditions that he fought so long to overcome.
Recording the voice poses an ontolOgical risk: the recorded voice is the stolen voice that returns to the self as the hallUCinatory presence of the voice of another. This other's voice may be the voice of God, as is often the case in paranoid experiences, and as was the case for Artaud during the period of his madness.
In para- noid projections, one's own voice is hallucinated as coming ftom without, as a divine or diabolic presence speaking the forbidden thoughts of unspeakable desires or unbearable prohibitions. The quotidian, empirical aspects of such an exteriorization of sound without image are outlined by Pierre Schaeffer, and discussed by Michel Chion, in terms ofthe notion of an acousmetre. This concrete presence and gener- ality ofthe pure materiality ofsounds by themselves bears all ofthe features traditionally attributed to the Judeo-Christian God and proffers the oftentimes paranoid invitation for us to lose ourselves in its totality.
These features of the disincamate voice - ubiquity, panopticism, Planophrasia, omniscience, omnipotence - cause the radiophonic work to return as hallucination and phantasm; it is thus not un- usual to find the radio fantasized as receiving messages ftom the beyond, serving as a spiritual transmitter in overcompensation for.
With no visible. Thus in terms of To HaveDone with theJudgment. Psychoanalytic theory teaches that figures of style and modes of expression are remotivated and reformalized in order to serve as ego-defense mechanisms, especially in the case of schiwphrenia. Thus figurative uses may be taken literally, or literal statements may be rhetOrically transformed, as verbal signs of unconscious thought processes. The very problem of style as formalization or demotivation must be considered in its function as a mechanism of defense, in direct relation to libidinal, corporeal operation.
Halle Done with theJudgment ofGod suppressed the glossolalia and. And that he didn't replace it with either the screams or the bruitage with which he would punctuate the later articulations of the texts but rather began with a drumroll, fol- lowed immediately by the diatribe of the introductory text?
Artaud certainly wished to create a broadcast that would break with conventions. But if to a certain extent recording and broadcast technolOgies conventionalize performance - by fix- ing it for endless repetition, and by flattening it out to exclude extreme effects undesirable for the exigencies of the apparatus and the aesthetics of the recording and broadcast bureaucracies - then the paradox of Artaud's attempt is evident.
This is its ultimate failure: an antirepresentational representation; a spontaneous fix- ing; a nonbroadcast; an affront against the public "spirit," which was also a disfiguration of Artaud's own work.
The return of the repressed was transfigured according to the exigencies ofthe radio- phonic att, where Artaud's voice was severed from his body, made an autonomous object in the world, and cast off to pursue its own destiny. Artaud's expectations about the aesthetic possibilities of radio. The sheer numerical and geographical advantages of radio over.
His final work offered no escape. The fate of this work, To. Have Done with the Judgment of God, is now an integral part of the.
In short, he was not exactly a lover of serious music. The result:. Edison considered dramatic personality intrusive on discs and developed a stringent, mechanicalperfection aestheticfor recordings that included purity oftone, extreme clarity ofenunciation, and the abolition ofextra- neous noises, which, he conceded, would not be objectionable in the concert.
Today - when extreme reproductive fidelity and clarity have been made possible by digital tape recording and laser playback technol. First, by eliminating the noises inherent in earlier electronic re- cording and playback systems tape hiss, microphonic distortion, vinyl pops and scratches, etc. In Edison's time, it was the imperfec- tion ofrecording technology that produced unwanted noises; now it is the very perfection of the system that does so. The second irony is that recorded music has indeed approached perfection since the advent of tape in - but at a price.
Practically no recording is really "live;' as few musicians or conductors would let pass on record a flawed performance. They all make mistakes; yet, quite simply, few release them!
Thus splices are almost invariably a feature of recorded music: studio sessions include remakes of en- tire pieces or entire passages, of certain sections or single notes - whatever is needed to correct an error ; "live" concert recordings often consist of several concerts spliced together, with additional. Edison, in a moment of technical hubris, claimed: "I am like a phonograph? What is in question is musical perfection. But of course, perfectionism is idealization, and the onset of recording created an irrevocable split in what constitutes the perfect musical.
Concert expression entails inevita- ble technical flaws bad acoustics, where certain musical sounds get totally lost in certain spots of concerr halls such as the Phil- harmonic in New York; the inevitable body sounds of the musi- cians; distracting ambient sounds inevitable in any human gather- ing; etc. Studio peifectionism most often entails a loss of spontaneity, idiosyncrasy, and expression, due to the desire for technical perfec- tion, clarity of sound, distinct instrumental balances, and musical note-perfect performance.
In our age of musical reproducibility, "recording is an a fortiori idealized version ofan artist's output at one particular period of his. But the problem is that the "perfectibility" of record. The question of realism, "concert realism;' is central to the problem of recording:.
The possibilities of recording and post-recording manipulation are manifold. The use of highlighting - making a recorded instru- ment dynamically stand our from the rest of the orchestra - is a case in point. This can be accomplished either by the specific use of microphones to change balancing during recording, or by post- recording balancing achieved during the mixing of the different tracks. The rationale for such effects is to compensate for the visual cues that in part determine the balance between instruments in concert situations, and which are obviously lost in recording.
Yet nearly surreal cases obtain in extreme examples of these effects, such as the follOWing, painted out by Gunther Schuller. The Radio as Musical Instrument. In Mozart's symphonies, for instance, you hear a lot of arpeggios which give a melting chordal sound in the proper hall.
A recording engineer. He would like to hear the arpeggio as it is written in the score. And the listener who becomes accustomed to this kind of listening Planophrasia not the music butthe skeleton ofthe music, because the. Which "realism" is to be chosen: that of the score or of the perfor- mance or of the recording?
The diverse "realist" aims of recording thus determine the mode of idealism manifested by any given work. Indeed, the often exaggerated desire for performative "au- thenticity:' combined with the mimetic quest for perfection in re- cording - often leading to the dullest music - is a reaction against a "Romanticism" which entails extreme manifestations of interpreta- tion and expression in performance.
Due to the necessity of instrumental Planophrasia and note-perfect technical mastery in recording, splicing is inevitable.
What might have been understood by some as Glenn Gould's anomalous, ec- centric position of having become a uniquely "recording" artist - striving for perfection through the art of splicing - is in fact what nearly every recording artist necessarily does during both studio and especially live recording. With the practice ofsound recording and editing, we discover the technodream of musical perfectibility, epitomized by the career of Gould.
Gould's legendary text, ''The Prospects of Recording"outlines both the effects of re- cording on musical composition and the utopian limits of musi- cal poSSibility established by electronic sound reproduction. The influence of recording paradigms on modem musical composition includes:.
But recording has also changed Planophrasia very patterns and expectations of musical listening. Musical performance is now associated with a new extreme of "analytic clarity, immediacy, and indeed almost. An example of the latter offered by Gould is of a high C sung by Elisabeth Schwarzkopf that is appended to Kirsten Flagstad's part in a recording of Tristan. Gould demonstrated in several experiments that it is nearly impossible to locate a properly made splice by listening for an error; it can more likely be found by listening for a too-perfect articulation in a difficult passage.
In fact, we can even recompose entire symphOnies utilizing this recombinatory technique, as in Gould's example of the poSSibility of editing together Bruno Walter's performance of the exposition and recapitulation of the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Sym- phony with Klemperer's handling of the developmental section.
Gould: "Because of this complexity, because so many different lev- els of participation will, in fact, be merged in the final result, the individualized information concepts which define the nature of identity and authorship will become very much less imposing. Thus Gould concludes - in a very different vein from Artaud or Cage - that "the audience would be the artist and their life would be art.
Nevertheless, the ironic result is that recording sets an audible standard of musical perfection i. In turn, many concert- izers try to imitate the recorded sound. The Rmiio as Musical Instrument. Planophrasia Radw. And some conductors, such as Solti, train their orchestras to imitate re- corded sound - the Chicago Symphony has developed an incredibly loud, brilliant sound, a clarity of detail, and a peifection of performance, all qualities that are derivedfrom recordings.
But the influence of recording is not always so salutary, since many young musicians and conductors prepare for concertizing by lis- tening to and imitating recordings, rather than by reading the score, a practice which mitigates against individual expression and produces mannerist playing, a fact lamented by viola player Mi- chael Tree of the Guarneri Quartet. On the same topic, violinist Miha Pogacnik, speaking of one of his students who would pre- pare in this manner, further notes: "But this was reflected in his playing: two measures of poor Milstein here, four measures of second-rate Oistrakh and Szeryng there.
You could notice imita- tion of the types ofdetails that recording transmits. Finally, how does the listener, or indeed the performer, choose between the two? To say that recorded music does not Simply re- produce live music, but is another distinct art form, or to say that the recorded work is but one retouched performance among many others live and recorded of any given work, only begs the question. A choice, or at least a differentiation, must be made.
Recording engineers and producers have been deemed both artists and meddlers, in consideration of their ultimate powers over the final recorded musical product.
In The RecordingAngel, Evan Eis- enberg explains what is at stake in musical recording, detailing the three major paradigms: I take a "sound photograph;' that is, merely attempting to reproduce a given performance; 2 extract "an impossibly perfect performance"; 3 create an entirely new entity as did Gould. Further paradoxes obtain regarding the recording of non-West- ern vocal music. The late avant-garde filmmaker and musicologist Harry Smith explains:. Like tonal languages, as in Uruba, lots of things that were identified as songs turned out to bepoetry that is recited at a certain pitch.
Or a Seneca thing which is spoken but because it's transcribed from a tape recorde1; it is pOSSible to indicate what tone each word is sounded on.
Because of this. It is an artifact ofthe technical methodsofhandling theproductionsofpeoplehocal chordsthat classifies certain things as songs. Not only does this complicate ethnological and aesthetic issues of the classification ofnon-Western music, but these complications in turn establish new musical forms and musicological considerations within the context of Western music, imbued as it presently is with its worldwide counterparts.
Thus, as Gould suggests, even if the possibilities of sound recording establish the archival aural equiv- alent of Malraux's "museum without walls;' we nevertheless need new modes ofcategorization and judgment regarding the contents of such archives. Not only do qualitative judgments change, but there must also be a shift in the entire consideration ofwhat enters the musical domain and how that domain is to be defined and transformed.
Recent theoretical work on audio and radio art has proposed hyperbolic possibilities of recording technology, going far beyond music: Douglas Kahn has analyzed the realm of virtual sound real- ities, which will guide the creation of future electronic recording equipment according to as-of-yet unimagined compositional de- sires - far beyond contemporary synthesizers and digital sampling devices - more pitched to active performance than passive record- ing, and based upon paradigms not limited by "the weight of mu- sic.
Upon leaving the studio after the session where the sound effects. Indeed, the per- cussive, CI:ylophonic, glossolalic, and guttural sounds that he cre- ated for this work constituted music, a sort of m u s i q u e b r u t e or musique pauvre, entirely in the spirit of Artaud's theater of cmelty. His screams became poetry and his noises became music, in an attempt to express the inexpressible, profound, chaotic essence of human existence, of cmel reality, where art becomes life.
Listening to this new sort of music imbued with noise presents. Have Done with the Judgment of God were recorded, Artaud. Phantasmic Rtuiio. Consider, for example, the fact that an audio engineer wish- ing to determine the acoustic structure of a sound of a given dura- tion must take 40 times more measures for a noise than for a spo- ken vowel, and times more measures for noise than for a sung. The quasi-hypnotic effect expected of musical regularity rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic is shattered by the shock effects ofArtaud's musical bruitage.
This follows from his conception of the extreme effects of sound in the theater, ex- pressed in an early manifesto, Le thidtreAlfredJarry : "The spectator who comes to us knows that he has just exposed himself to a true operation, where not only his mind but also his senses and his flesh are at stake.
He will henceforth go to the theater as he goes to the surgeon or the dentist" 2: Artaud's earliest musical project was the libretto he wrote for Edgard Varese's prospective but never written opera, IlAstro- nome. The first movement begins:. Explosions in this darkness. Hamwnies suddenly broken off. Harsh sounds. Depressurized soundings.
The music willgive the impression ofa distant cataclysm and willfill. Chords will Originate in. Sounds willfall as if from very high then suddenly stop and spread out in bursts forming vaults andparasols. Tiers The sounds and light will surge out in fits and starts with jolts of a magnified Morse code telegraph but this will be to Morse code what the music of the spheres heard by Bach is to Massenet's Clair de lune.
Furthermore, in an archetypically Artaudian figure we find the hu- man body itself transformed into a musical instrument in the third movement:. Then the noise ofa bizarre drum envelops everything a nearly human noise which begins sharply and ends dully always the same noise; and then we see enter a woman with an enomwus belly upon which two men alternately strike with drumbeats. During the same period, in an interview regarding his play Les CenciArtaud explains the staging, which would include the use of the andes Martenot an early electric musical instru- mentrecordings of the huge bells of the cathedral of Notre- Dame ofParis, and most shockingly, recordings offactory machine noises, "which would have their place in torture chambers of the MiddleAges" The year in which Artaud produced To Have Done with the JUfig- mentofGod,was a pivotal year in the history of twentieth-cen- tury music.
Yet the intent was diametrically opposed, as Messiaen's goal was to incorporate these foreign effects into the Western musical canon, and thus expand it. To the contrary, Artaud wished to subvert those very same canons by introducing radically foreign musical forms which would continue to maintain their disruptive stylistic and metaphYSical alterity opposed to cultural values.
An anecdote is revealing. The fact is that Artaud briefly worked with Messiaen inat the very moment that the former con- ceived his project with Varese. This was during the rehearsals of La patissiCre du village, staged by Louis J ouvet.
In regard to the need to create some nonmusical sound effects on the organ, Artaud's re- marks about Messiaen were less than flattering:. I insist, moreover, that not being a musician myself, I can only convey ideas to the O1;ganist, yet he resists with all the force ofhis unconscious the idea of isolating non-musical sonorities; also, because of this tendency which he cannot overcome, his interpretation ofevenprecisepoints is never what had been agreed upon.
The RRdio asMusicallnstrurnent. But due to rapid technical progress, contemporary musical events far outpaced the terms of this argument. The year also witnessed the birth of musique concrete created by Pierre Schaef- fer working in the studies of Radiodiffusion-tdevision fram;aise. There was a continual perfecting of sound recording techniques - most notably the postwar development of magnetic tape - which permitted both the high quality recording of everyday sounds, as well as easier post-recording manipulation of the tape.
Schaeffer utilized these possibilities to create a new sort of sound "object;' not a musical composition but rather a musical drama of sound. Correspondingly, he argued that the playback capabilities of the gramophone would make it the most general musical instru- ment. The 33 and 45 rpm speeds became the industrial standard in It is of particular interest that the first such works of musique concrete were conceived to be broadcast on the radio.
Early musical tape works were created in radio studios for the practical reason that such studios were among the very few places where musicians had access to the new recording technology; and radio management was motivated to occaSionally make their facilities available because of the inherent cultural focus of radio's charter as a public service. Railroad Studydescribed as a "study of rhythm".
Later that year, on 5 Octoberthere was a broadcast of his "concert of noises;' consisting of sounds derived from saucepans and piano chords. The piano was played by none other than the young Pierre Boulez, a student of Messiaen, and a future student of musique concrete in Schaeffer's electroacoustic studios at Radio France in 1 9 5 I. Boulez reveals the importance of Artaud's work for the musical experimentation of the epoch:. The name ofArtaud immediately comes to mind when questions ofvocal emission or the dissociation of words and their explosion are evoked; an actor and poet, he was naturally provoked by the material problems of interpretation, jUst like a composer who plays or conducts.
I am not qual- ified to thoroughly investigate Artaud's language, but I can find in his writings the fundamental preoccupations ofcurrent music; having heard him read his own texts, accompanying them with screams, noises, rhythms, he showed us how to achieve a fusion of sound and word, how to splash out the phoneme when the word no longer can, in short, how to o'llanize delirium.
What nonsense and what an absurd alliance of terms, you'll say! Would you believe only in the vertigo ofimprovisation and the powers of an "elementary" sacralization? More and more, I imagine that to effectively create this we must consider delirium and, yes, o'llanize itJ9. Earlier, just after the. God, Boulez explains in "Propositions" : "I think that music must be hysteria and collective bewitchment, violently present - follOWing the direction of Antonin Artaud, and not in the sense of a simple ethnographic reconstitution in the image of civiliza- tions more or less distant from US?
This Meaning is lost in the disorder of drugs and appears profoundly. This Meaning is a. It is order, it is intelligence. But it does not accept this chaos as such it interprets it wses it. It is the wgic of Ilwgic. And this is to say every- thing.
My lucid unreason does notfear chaos. These considerations of chaos were central to a key debate in the history of modern music, and they were to be appropriated by the most radical, antipodal exponents of contemporary music in the IS, Pierre Boulez and John Cage.
The debate would center around the problem of musical lOgiC and illogic, as manifested by the role of chaos chance, the aleatory in musical composition and performance.
And it was precisely this question which would be at the origins of the first contacts between Cage and Boulez, as well as at the source of their eventual rupture. Thus chance need be absorbed in the musical work, rather than control its production. Though Artaud might have been the immediate inspiration for this position, it was to Mallarme that Boulez turned for a justifica- tion of his poetics of controlled chance.
Boulez's Pli sewn pli was a musical "portrait;' based on poems of Mallarme. And it was pre- cisely in relation to interpretations stressing radically differing as- pects of Mallarme's writing that the rift between Roulez and Cage developed. In an act where chance is at play it is always chance that effects its own Idea by affirming or denying itself This negation or affirmation runs aground before its very existence.
It contains the Absurd - it implies it but in a latent state which hinders its existence: this permits Infinity to exist. Boulez's conclusion is that the ultimate perfection-in-objectifica- tion of music may occur through such a use of controlled chance- appropriated in Boulez's total serialism, that is, his extension of the organizational system of twelve-tone music to all musical param- eters.
This will entail "the only means t o k i l l the Artist" faced with the pure musical work. Thus Mallarme's entire work is imbued not only with the musi- cal metaphor, but indeed with one of the most subtle and precise.
But this is a musi- cality radically divorced from expression. Though he claims that "every soul is a melody, which must be renewed,"24 and "every soul. But neither for Mallarme nor for Boulez was this to be a "wild chance;' as the former explains: ''An arrangement of the book of verse appears innate or everywhere, and eliminates. Such is poetry aspiring to the quality of music. The seminal statement on the aesthetic role of chance is Mal- larmes ultimate work, Un coup de dis jamais n abolira Ie hasard.
Bou- lez's motivation is a critique of the state of contemporary music:. Toute pensee emet un coup de des. Donc aucune pensee n'abolira le hasard" A roll of the dice will never abolish chance.
Every thought casts a roll of the dice. Therefore no thought will abolish chance. Every artwork is both the recipient and the producer of chance, where the aleatory is the web in which artist and spectator are mutually entangled. Can the same be said for the controlled chance of Boulezian musical composition?
During this sanle period, John Cage was concerned with related! M11tVi musical problems. The collaboration between Cage and Boulez began inwhen Boulez wrote an introductory text for a pre. Reciprocally, it was Cage who arranged for the U. The ensuing corre- spondence between Cage and Boulez was in part devoted to the problem of chance in music, and it soon became evident that their positions were diametrically opposed.
Indeed, perhaps Boulez's most vicious critique of Cage was an oblique one, contained in the very last letter of their published correspondence, where Boulez writes: "The essential is, above all else, to create nonsense without any program!
Cage's concern with chance operations and the musical rele- vance of noise had its own history. Much of Cage's music of the S and swas created for the dance especiallythatofMerce Cunningham. First of all, Cage argued that the only parameter shared by both dance and music is that of rhythm, thus all other parameters become incidental; furthermore, much of this dance music was percussive, and since percussion includes non-pitched sounds, it by definition potentially accepts any sound source.
The pOSSibility of freeing rhythm is thus at the origin of the notion of freeing timbre, thanks to the non-pitched aspect of many percus- sion instruments. Hence, for example, the creation of the prepared piano for Cage's composition B a c c h a n a l eto accompany Sy- villa Fort's dance piece of the same name.
The insertion of objects such as wood screws, bolts, and weather stripping between the piano strings altered the timbre ofthe piano, disrupted the familiar consistency ofthe scales, and transformed the piano into a new sort of percussion instrument.
Until that time, the only major work for percussion alone was Varese's Ionisation, for thirteen players and thirty-seven percussion instruments; though this was a fore- runner of electronic music due to its liberation of timbre and its sonic effects, it was nevertheless bound by Varese's musical tem- perament and the limits of modernist musical sensibility.
Cage proposed a radically new interpretation of musical struc- ture: arguing that as silence is the necessary coexistent of sound, and that of the four musical determinants pitch, timbre, dynam- ics, duration only duration is common to both sound and silence. Thus he was no longer interested in conventional musical rhythms, but rather in the use of rhythm as a quantitative, met- rical means of dividing and organizing musical time and struc- ture.
While Schoenberg's dodecaphonic revolution liberated dis- sonance from the need for resolution, Cage freed music from the need of considering the problem of dissonance. But he did not stop there: he ultimately defined rhythm as pure and simple time lengths, implying that "rhythm is not at a l l some- thing periodic and repetitive. It is the fact that something hap- pens, something unexpected, something irrelevant.
Ultimately, rhythm is consti- tuted by the temporal relations between any given events. As op- posed to the permanent repetitive possibilities of written music, these Cagean innovations stressed the existential uniqueness of each individual moment, aiming at a music both immediate and ephemeral.
At first, in the s, Cage utilized a system of arithmetic pro- portion to determine the rhythmic structure of his pieces; then, aroundhe began to open these rhythmic structures to any content the beginnings of the use ofnoise and soon began to use chance operations to determine both rhythmic structure and con- tent. Thus Cage's valorization of both noise and silence had strict musicological as well as pragmatic dance-related origins. In the text, "For More New Sounds;' Cage praised the range of musical instruments in jazz, Oriental, and Latin music, advocating the use of such unconventional percussion instruments as auto- mobile parts, pipe lengths, pieces of sheet metal, shells, whistles, and needles on records.
He extrapolates these possibilities to their electronic limits, imagining a combination of such effects and the special sound effects of radio and film studios, utilizing devices created by acoustic engineers. Thus, along with Varese, and fol- lowing Russolo's pronouncements in "The Art of Noises;' Cage at this point imagines of the pOSSibility of electronic music, claiming that "many musicians, the writer included, have dreamed of compact technological boxes, inside which all audible sounds, including noise, would be ready to come forth at the command of the composer.
I m a g i - nary Landscape 'nO. I is the first live work ofelectronic music:. The notation indicates rhythm lifring the needle on and off the records and speed changes on the turntable. Imaginary Land- scape 'nO. Amore sophisticated variant. Changes of tone, amplitude, object replacement, and the use of repetitive loops are also controlled by the same means. Cage's "imaginary landscapes" were among the forerunners of virtual reality: existing on the tapes and in the circuits of record- ing and playback technology, and mixed with human percussive effects and aleatory recordings of quotidian sounds, these works represented a world transformed by the modulation of everyday sounds into their technical and musical counterparts.
All sound - actual and potential; natural and artificial; live and recorded; past, present and future; private and public - is now accepted within the. For Cage, to the contrary, chance was to be given free rein, was to be allowed to control both composition and performance. Cage was particularly concerned with the multi- plication of chance techniques which could serve as the origin. Beginning with his first work composed utiliz- ing chance operations, the piano piece entitled Music of Changes - based on the I Ching and deeply inspired by Zen Bud- dhism - Cage utilized chance operations to free himself from both pleasure and disgust.
Thus Cage's chance operations are used to relinquish ego and authorship. Yet, if Cage's operations are mi- metic, it is in imitation not of objects, but of the very processes of nature itself in its methods of operation. Cage was interested in process rather than product, in new percepts rather than new con- cepts; he wanted to set new processes in motion rather than create new musical structures.
He explains in "Experimental Music":. And what is the purpose ofwriting music? One is, of course, not dealing with purposes but dealing with sounds. Or the answer musttake theform ofa paradox: a purposeful purposelessness or a purposelessplay. The differences between Boulez and Cage are expressed by Cage, speaking of the role of the aleatory in Boulez:.
Well, he used that word only to describe appropriate and correct chance. In fact, his chance operationsfit into his compositions only. He very strictly distinguishes between determinate. As a whole, it. For Cage, the role of recording and chance operations allowed the entry of nonmusical sounds, of noise, into music, thus moving towards the elimination of the boundaries between life and art, very much in the Duchampian tradition.
For Boulez, on the con- trary, there is no place for noise in music: indeed, his total serial- ism even including the limited role of aleatory operations was intended to more fully order the linear structure of music as a pure work. To Boulez's equal distribution of chance operations on the fully determinate musical parameters of pitch, dynamicS, duration, and rhythm, Cage opposes an unequal distribution of events within the musical context, both unforseeable and indeter- minate.
Both of these techniques must be differentiated from Iannis Xenakis's "stochastic" compositions of the same epoch, de. RRdio as Musical Instrument. Phantasmic Rtuiw. Bou- lez absorbs chance in the work; Cage opens the work to the world through chance. Boulez aims at serial regulation, while Cage vaunts non-intention and "interpenetration without obstruction. In "For More New Sounds" Cage calls for the organiza- tion of sound effects with their expressive rather than represen- tational qualities in mind.
Consider Cage's quip against Varese, claiming that he is in fact an artist of the past, since "rather than dealing with sounds as sounds, he deals with them as Varese?
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