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These recollections of one's past are usually important events, people one cares about, and places where one has spent time. Music [6] and weather [7] can also be strong triggers of nostalgia. Nostalgia's definition has changed greatly over time. Consistent with its Greek word roots meaning "homecoming" and "pain," nostalgia was for centuries considered a potentially debilitating and sometimes fatal medical condition expressing extreme homesickness. Occasional nostalgia has been found to have many functions, such as to improve mood, increase social connectedness, enhance positive self-regard, and provide existential meaning.

Many nostalgic reflections serve more than one function, and overall seem to benefit those who experience them. Such benefits may lead to a chronic disposition or personality trait of "nostalgia proneness. Although nostalgia is often triggered by negative feelings, it results in increasing one's mood and heightening positive emotions, which can stem from feelings of warmth or coping resulting from nostalgic reflections.

One way to improve mood is to effectively cope with problems that hinder one's happiness. Batcho found that nostalgia proneness positively related to successful methods of coping throughout all stages—planning and implementing strategies, and reframing the issue positively.

These studies led to the conclusion that the coping strategies that are likely among nostalgia prone people often lead to benefits during stressful times. Nostalgia can be connected to more focus on coping strategies and implementing them, thus increasing support in challenging times.

Nostalgia also sometimes involves memories of people you were close to, and thus it can increase one's sense of social support and connections. Nostalgia is also triggered specifically by feelings of loneliness, but counteracts such feelings with reflections of close relationships. According to Zhou et al. Loneliness, however, leads to nostalgia, which actually increases perceptions of social support.

Thus, Zhou and colleagues concluded that nostalgia serves a restorative function for individuals regarding their social connectedness. Nostalgia serves as a coping mechanism and helps people to feel better about themselves.

Vess et al. Additionally, in a second study conducted, some participants were exposed to nostalgic engagement and reflection while the other group was not. The researchers looked again at self-attributes and found that the participants who were not exposed to nostalgic experiences reflected a pattern of selfish and self-centered attributes. Nostalgia helps increase one's self-esteem and meaning in life by buffering threats to well-being and also by initiating a desire to deal with problems or stress.

Routledge and colleagues found that nostalgia correlates positively with one's sense of meaning in life. The second study revealed that nostalgia increases one's perceived meaning in life, which was thought to be mediated by a sense of social support or connectedness.

Thirdly, the researchers found that threatened meaning can even act as a trigger for nostalgia, thus increasing one's nostalgic reflections. By triggering nostalgia, though, one's defensiveness to such threat is minimized as found in the fourth study. The final two studies found that nostalgia is able to not only create meaning, but buffer threats to meaning by breaking the connection between Nostalgia lack of meaning and one's well being. Follow-up studies also completed by Routledge in not only found meaning as a function of nostalgia, but also concluded that nostalgic people have greater perceived meaning, search for meaning less, and can better buffer existential threat.

Nostalgia makes people more willing to engage in growth-oriented behaviors and encourages them to view themselves as growth-oriented people. In the second study, nostalgia led to the same growth outcomes but the effects were statistically mediated by nostalgia-induced self-esteem. One recent study critiques the idea of nostalgia, which in some forms can become a defense mechanism by which people avoid the historical facts. Reliving past memories may provide comfort and contribute to mental health.

They found that thinking about the past 'fondly' actually increased perceptions of physical warmth. In a study conducted by Routledge, he and a team observed that the more people reported having major disruptions and uncertainties in their lives, the more they nostalgically longed for the past. Routledge suggests that by invoking the idea of an idealized past, politicians can provoke the social and cultural anxieties and uncertainties that make nostalgia especially attractive — and effective — as a tool of political persuasion.

The term was coined in by Johannes Hofer — in his Basel dissertation. Hofer introduced nostalgia or mal du pays " homesickness " for the condition also known as mal du Suisse "Swiss illness" or Schweizerheimweh "Swiss homesickness", because of its frequent occurrence in Swiss mercenaries who in the plains of lowlands France or Italy were pining for their native mountain landscapes.

Symptoms were also thought to include fainting, high fever, indigestion, stomach pain, and death. Military physicians hypothesized that the malady was due to damage to the victims' brain cells and ear drums by the constant clanging of cowbells in the pastures of Switzerland.

English homesickness is a loan translation of nostalgia. Sir Joseph Banks used the word in his journal during the first voyage of Captain Cook. On 3 September he stated that the sailors "were now pretty far gone with the longing for home which the Physicians have gone so far as to esteem a disease under the name of Nostalgia", but his journal was not published in his lifetime see Beaglehole, J.

Cases resulting in death were known and soldiers were sometimes successfully treated by being discharged and sent home, Nostalgia. Receiving a diagnosis was, however, generally regarded as an insult. In Robert Hamilton —, physician of Ipswich described a case of a soldier suffering from nostalgia, who received sensitive and successful treatment:. In the yearwhile I lay in barracks at Tin mouth in the north of England, a recruit who had lately joined the regiment He had only been a few months a soldier; was young, handsome, and well-made for the service; but a melancholy hung over his countenance, and wanness preyed on his cheeks.

He complained of a universal weakness, but no fixed pain; a noise in his ears, and giddiness of his head. As there were little obvious symptoms of fever, I did not well know what to make of the case. Some weeks passed with little alteration He scarcely took any Nostalgia He was put on a course of strengthening medicines; wine was allowed him. All proved ineffectual. He had now been in the hospital three months, and was quite emaciated, and like one in the last stage of consumption.

On making my morning visit, and inquiring, as usual, of his rest at the nurse, she happened to mention Nostalgia strong notions he had got in his head, she said, of home, and of his friends.

What he was able to speak was constantly on this topic. This I had never heard of before. He had talked in the same style, it seems, less or more, ever since he came into the hospital. I went immediately up to him, and introduced the subject; and from the alacrity with which he resumed it. I found it a theme which much affected him. He asked me, with earnestness, if I would let him go home. I pointed out to him how unfit he was, from his weakness to undertake such a journey [he was a Welchman ] till once he was better; but promised him, assuredly, without farther hesitation, that as soon as he was able he should have six weeks to go home.

He revived at the very thought of it. His appetite soon mended; and I saw in less than a week, evident signs of recovery. In the eighteenth century, scientists were looking for a locus of nostalgia, a nostalgic bone.

By the s nostalgia was losing its status as a particular disease and coming to be seen rather as a symptom or stage of a pathological process. When asked by The Quietus if the songs from the album drew from his personal experiences, Frank commented "My kitchen is usually pretty clean, you know. But you have fun with the imagery, and for me the whole concept that everything has to be Like, nobody gets upset with a director when a director's film isn't about his life. People think that with a recording artist that shit has to be like a fucking play by play of their whole life, but it's not.

It's imagery, and a little bit of satire, Nostalgia. The album begins with a melodic cover of " Strawberry Swing " by English alternative rock band Coldplay.

Ocean meets the girl at Coachellaa musical festival which takes place in Indio, California. The pair get high using dental local anesthetics. Several interludes are placed throughout the album, named after video gamessuch as Street FighterMetal Gear SolidGoldenEye and Soulcalibur. According to The Guardian" Odd Future 's frequent use of the word ' faggot ' unsettled liberal stomachs", and that "Ocean was brave enough to stand alone once more, declaring on 'We All Try': 'I believe that marriage isn't between a man and woman, but between love and love'.

Pitchfork Media wrote that "in a skit called "Bitches Talkin", the ladies tell him to cut it out with the damn Radioheadwhile " Optimistic " is playing in the background; in 'Songs For Women', he obliges—he's an indie kid when it comes to alienation but a pragmatist when it comes to sex.

The mixtape also contains several references to American director Stanley Kubrick and his films, most notably Eyes Wide Shut. The song has been described as emotional in nature, containing a glitchy beat sampled from Mr Hudsonwith heavily synthesised vocals.

At least not in the United States. The song exhibits Ocean as an "openly fun character", opening the song with the line "I've been meaning to fuck you in the garden. Nostalgia, Ultra received widespread acclaim from critics. At Metacriticwhich assigns a normalized rating out of to reviews from mainstream publications, the mixtape received an average score of 83, based on nine reviews. Club called the mixtape "dark, playful, a little tasteless, and absolutely riveting".

In his review for MSN MusicRobert Christgau described Ocean's "romantic laments" as "models of texture, respect, and profound loss, their beats subtle, seductive, weird, and seized like time whether he's deploying 'songs for women' that are soon trumped by Drake's, not feeling a porn-moonlighting dental student and her 'novacaine,' or annulling a courthouse wedding solemnized just before his bride turned in her term paper on hijab.

But there's also a heady surreality surrounding Nostalgia, Ultra that makes it unique. Talking about which other songs would make it onto the reissue, Ocean commented that "The Eagles sample 'American Wedding' has no chance in hell of being cleared". I hear 'possibly' from people who say they know. MGMT, those guys seem chill. I heard they heard the record 'Nature Feels' and they liked it a lot, so hopefully that can go someway. In its fourth week, it rose to number The feeling of wanting to feel something you can't feel.

A lot of things can cause that numbing, but in the video it was some sort of topical aesthetic and a little bit of special effects. Ocean embarked on a six-date concert tour from November 5 to November 15,through North America and Europe to promote both the mixtape and his other musical projects. The original date for that show was postponed to the 27th, and that an additional show on the 28th had been added.

Rolling Stone reviewed the debut show, calling Ocean awkward at times, though they stated that "fortunately his dispassionately told stories of love and loss in a world that assumes impermanence could handle the load of the audience. The set lists to the various shows varied, though singles "Swim Good" and "Novacane" were performed at all shows. Before the release of Nostalgia, UltraOcean was a relatively unknown artist who made a majority of his money from ghostwriting.

She subsequently invited Ocean to co-write " I Miss You " for her album 4. I noticed his tone, his arrangements, and his storytelling. I immediately reached out to him—literally the next morning.

I asked him to fly to New York and work on my record. West also offered to appear on Ocean's debut album, but Ocean refused, saying "as much as I want to work with you… I kind of want to do this without you. I kind of want to do it on my own. He doesn't sound fly-by-night.

The moment you hear it — I hear what he's sayin', and I relate. The track "Novacane" also received widespread critical acclaim. It was listed as one of the best songs of the year by The New York Times[76] Ology, [77] Spin[78] Zimbio[79] and Pitchfork Media named both the video and the song as amongst the best of the year. Don Henley of the Eagles "had threatened legal action over Ocean's track", claiming that Ocean's version of the song was illegal. This is not creative, let alone 'intimidating.

For the record, Don Henley has not threatened or instituted any legal action against Frank Ocean, although the Eagles are now considering whether they should. Several publications noted that the song was released for free on a non-profitable mixtape, and that "live covers of famous songs are common in live performances", and that sampling is a common practice on mixtapes.

I think that's fuckin awesome. I guess if I play it at Coachella it'll cost me a couple hundred racks. Oh well. I try to buy my shit cash anyway. They asked that I release a statement expressing my admiration for Mr. Henley, along with my assistance pulling it off the web as much as possible. Shit's weird. Ain't this guy rich as fuck?

Why sue the new guy? I didn't make a dime off that song. I released it for free. If anything I'm paying homage. Ocean performed the song live occasionally with an altered arrangement not utilizing the original "Hotel California" sample. Henley eventually spoke out on the controversy, defending his stance on the litigation threat and referring to Ocean as "talentless". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Ocean. Breaux Christopher Stewart Monte Neuble. Nigel Godrich Radiohead.

Nostalgia Benjamin Mclldowie. Breaux Waynne Nugent Kevin Risto. Breaux Bei Maejor Collins. Bill Szymczyk Fauntleroy. VIBE Magazine. Retrieved April 23, New York. Retrieved November 18, Retrieved June 17, Retrieved June 1, March 22, Retrieved March 22, Complex Magazine. Retrieved April 28, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved May 7, Retrieved March 2, The Quietus.

MSN Music. Retrieved May 4, The Miscellany News. Archived from the original on June 29, The Top 50 Albums ofPage 4. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved on The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on June 17, Pitchfork: Novacane. The Guardian. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on May 12, The A. Retrieved January 11, Retrieved September 23, The Boston Phoenix.

Archived from the original on August 11, Retrieved December 16, Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved May 10, May 9,


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  6. nos·tal·gi·a (nŏ-stăl′jə, nə-) n. 1. A bittersweet longing for things, persons, or situations of the past. 2. The condition of being homesick; homesickness. [Greek nostos, a return home; see nes- in Indo-European roots + -algia.] nos·tal′gic (-jĭk) adj. nos·tal′gi·cal·ly adv. nos·tal′gist n. nostalgic (nɒˈstældʒɪk) adj of or.
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